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Offentlighet av forvaltningen 

Offentlighet av forvaltningen skal ifølge offenliglova " leggje til rette for at offentleg verksemd er open og gjennomsiktig, for slik å styrkje informasjons- og ytringsfridommen, den demokratiske deltakinga, rettstryggleiken for den enkelte, tilliten til det offentlege og kontrollen frå ålmenta. " Ifølge grunnlovens § 100 "paaligger (det) Statens Myndigheder at lægge Forholdene til Rette for en aaben og oplyst offentlig Samtale" med å gi innsyn. I 1766 ble den første offentlighetslov (Tryckfrihetsförordningen) introdusert i Sverige-Finland, takket en Finne kalt Anders Chydenius, som kjempet for demokrati, likeverd og respekt av menneskerettigheter. 1888 kom slike bestemmelser i Kolumbia, 1919 i forfatningen og 1951 som lov i Finland (uavhengig 1917) og 1966 i USA.

Siden den gang har mer enn 80 stater innført slike offentlighetslover. Mange stater garanterer offentlighet av forvaltningen i forfatningen. Den globale trenden er at offentlighet i forvaltningen er et mennekerett. Mer enn 115 stater med mer enn 5,9 milliarder innbyggere har offentlighetslover eller tilsvarende regler i grunnlovene. Alle stater i Europa har offentlighetslover eller forbereder slike lover. Nesten alle OECD medlemmer og alle siviliserte land anerkjenner slike rettigheter. Right2Info.org gir en oversikt. Transparency var "Word of the Year" i 2003 og 28. September er "Right to Know" Day siden 2003. I Norge gir Offentlig elektronisk postjournal (OEP) enkle muligheter å søke og å bestille innsyn elektronisk.

Inhold:

Artikler, brev og petisjoner



Country Index

Albania, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Australia, Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Colombia, Council of Europe, The Czech Republic, Denmark, Eritrea, Estonia, European Union, Finland, Fiji, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia (FYROM), Mexico, Moldova, Mongolia, Nigeria, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, The Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Thailand, Trinidad und Tobago, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uzbekistan.

Global Trends

The global trends on the right to information are investigated by ARTICLE 19, the Global Campaign for Free Expression. Considering both laws and constitutions FOI is widely recognized as human right. Right2Info.org gives an overview. FOI is based on

FOI in constitutions

right2info.org gives an overview on constitutional protection of the right to information: In Sweden - with longest tradition - FOI is found in the Constitution  (Chapter 2, Article 1 (2)). The constitutions of many other countries i. e. Albania (Art. 23), Belarus (Art. 34), Belgium (Art. 32), Bulgaria (Art. 41), Croatia (only for journalists: Art. 38), Czech Republic (Charter of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms: Art. 17)Estonia (Art. 44),  Finland (Constitution, Section 12), Georgia (Art. 41), Hungary (Art. 61), Lithuania (Art. 25), Macedonia (Art. 16), Moldavia (Art. 34),  Netherlands (Art. 110), Poland (Art. 61), Portugal (Art. 268), Rumania (Art. 31), Russian Federation (Art. 29), Slovenia (Art. 39), Slovakia (Art. 26), Spain (Art. 105 b), Argentina (Art. 43), Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Malawi (Art. 37), Mongolia (Art. 16, 17)Mozambique (Art. 74), Nepal (Art. 16), Panama (Art. 42,43,44), the Philippines (Art. III, Sec. 7), Peru (Art. 200(3)),  the Republic of South Africa (sec. 16), Tanzania (Art. 18(2)), TajikistanThailand (Sec. 58),  and  Turkmenistan (26) all guarantee the right to access information held by the State.



Links to other sites on Freedom of Information

Support Freedom of Information for European Institutions: Call for an "Open Europe" (Statewatch)

Freedom of Information came 1766 to Sweden, 1951 to Finland1966 to den USA, 1970 to Norway and 1985 to Denmark In 1981 the Council of Europe gave "Recommendation No. R (81) 19" on the access to information held by public authorities. A new Recommendation Rec(2002)2 was adopted 2002. Both EU and nearly all countries in the EU and Europe adopted such laws. However citizen rights vary and there are no minimum standards. In order to keep up with the international development freedom of information should be strengthened in EU member states. Here is a petition to the European Parliament.

Support Freedom of Information, by the following call of Statewatch (click here):
I/We support the call to EU institutions for a democratic and accountable "Open Europe" on access to documents.



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Visitor No. since 2. January 2002

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